Dietology the theory of rational nutrition
Health and work capacity of a person can not be provided without scientifically based, rational nutrition.
The amount of nutrients a person needs depends on many factors: body weight, work performed, age, sex, environmental conditions. From food and water, a person receives nutrients. These include proteins, fats, carbohydrates, minerals, vitamins orlistat price, and non-digestible dietary fiber.
The composition and caloric content of food products are now well studied, the most important aspects of the physiology of human nutrition are known. This allows you to accurately navigate in matters of rational nutrition. However, as will be shown below, dietology proved to be precisely that doctrine, in which, unfortunately, there is no agreement among world authorities on the most elementary questions (for example, the diet regime, etc.). The thirst for scientific fame in unproductive and not preoccupied with acquiring the necessary knowledge of scientists leads to flooding of dietetics with erroneous "scientific" provisions. The desire of many firms for excessive profits from the introduction of various "power systems", accompanied by a fantastic advertising lie, disorient ordinary people, already puzzled by the unacceptable mistakes of the coryphaeuses of dietetics in the simplest and most important positions of this science.
The theory of rational, individually balanced nutrition determines three areas of activity: first, the amount of nutrients in accordance with their caloric content corresponds to the energy expenditure of the organism; Secondly, the qualitative composition and ratio of the various nutrients necessary for the normal life of the organism; Thirdly, a rational diet.
"Thus, the main principle of rational nutrition is the use of a variety of food, balanced by its quantity and quality individually for each person or for certain groups of people performing a homogeneous job, leading a certain lifestyle in these environmental conditions" (AV Loginov, "Physiology with the fundamentals of human anatomy", 1983).
Dear reader, pay attention to the fact that the quotation from the textbook of physiology quoted here does not mention a rational diet. This is an annoying mistake. In a special chapter on diet, it will be shown the exceptional importance of this third line of dietary activities.
The most important provisions of the theory of nutrition developed by Academician A.M. Coal. Usually the main of the three provisions of this theory of nutrition (the rest of the provisions will be discussed below) is formulated as follows: the caloric content of the food ration should correspond to the energy consumption.
In this generally accepted formulation, a very important and very complex physiological error is hidden. We can return to this question only when the reader has a strong stock of necessary knowledge. The error of the main position of dietetics was not understood by the authorities of this doctrine and will be investigated by us for the first time. In the initial 12 chapters of our book, the generally accepted interpretation of the main position of dietetics will be deliberately used: "the caloric content of the diet should correspond to energy costs." Such a formulation allows one to fully study a whole series of important issues.
"The more intensive the work, the more nutrients are needed. As low standards for this physical load, and inflated - are harmful to the body. In the first case, the structural substances of cells and tissues will be consumed for the formation of energy, a person will lose weight, depletion and cessation of vital activity will occur. In the second case, surpluses of nutrients ... in the form of fats ... will be deposited in tissues. Excess caloric intake in combination with low mobility leads to obesity, to the development of disorders in the body and, as it is now proven, to premature aging "(AV Loginov). We add that now it is proved: obesity leads to diseases. The most common and dangerous of which, apparently, should be recognized type II diabetes (insulin-independent type).
So, after A.M. Coal, we say that the caloric content of our diet should correspond to the energy costs of the body. Excess energy supply will lead to excess weight and its consequences, but energy costs that are not compensated by the energy supply will lead to the exhaustion of the organism and, ultimately, to its death.
The simplest and most reliable way to check the caloric content of a food ration for energy consumption is by most experts considering the control of the body weight (weight), which is calculated for an adult person as follows: growth in cm minus one hundred. This will correspond to the normal body weight (normal weight). Exceeding the norm by 10-29 percent is considered the first stage of obesity, by 30-50 percent - by the second stage, by 51-100 percent by the third stage. If the weight exceeds the norm above 100%, then this is the fourth, almost incurable stage of obesity (Professor VI Loiko, 1995). There are no corrections for age, at 50 and 25 years the body weight should be the same - in the norm! Obesity will be the subject of our research, which we will carry out together
In the preface to the book "There are to live, not live to eat" (1994), which opens with the work of G.M. Shelton's "The Right Combination of Food", says: "The greatest authority in matters of natural nutrition is Herbert Shelton. This is a famous American propagandist of naturopathy. He is a doctor of nine sciences - medicine, philosophy, literature, etc., the author of 40 scientific works. In 1928, H. Shelton founded the "School of Health" in San Antonio, where he cured 50,000 people. They were people who came to him already without any hope of recovery.
He died ... tragically at the age of about 100 years. He was full of strength, vigor and creative ideas. He left thousands of followers in many countries of the world, as well as in our country. "
In the chapter "Overeating" of her book, Herbert Shelton demonstrates a sharply negative attitude toward overeating: "Overeating spoiled more lives than malnutrition. For one suffering from malnutrition - 99 of those who suffer from gluttony. The markets of the whole world are packed with all sorts of products, as never before in the history of mankind. Their abundance, seductive variety and comparative cheapness in combination with the numerous menus used to spur an overloaded and satiated appetite with the aim of "refreshing pleasure" with seductive but weakening mixtures of extravagant food, canned food, alcoholic beverages, frozen fruits, ice cream and the ever-growing mute Threat in the form of pies, puddings and cakes - all this indicates a huge need for teaching people what they should not eat. "
Researchers report that many people suffer from excess weight in many countries of the world. Corresponding Member of Russian Academy of Medical Sciences Samsonov, the head of the Center for Dietetics of the Ministry of Health of Russia ("The Medical Gazette", January 29, 1993) writes: "How many people are overweight?
According to research, not too little. In the age group from 18 to 80 years, the number of obese people is 26 percent in almost any of the CIS countries (data of the last ten years). This coincides with the averaged data for other economically developed countries in Europe and America, where this figure is 20-30 percent. Here we have in mind the exchange-alimentary form of obesity, in the emergence of which has a definite value and endocrine factor. However, the dominant role belongs to an unbalanced, excessive diet. A very large group of people was also identified - 24% - with obesity, but not yet obesity. The conclusion is disappointing: half of the adult population of Russia, like other CIS countries, has an overweight body. And the number of obese women is almost three times higher than that of men, and women are more likely to encounter extreme degrees of obesity.
Survey of rural population indicates a fairly high number of people with overweight and among them. This is 16-20 percent, which, apparently, is associated not only with the wrong diet. Particularly alarming is a clear tendency to increase obesity among young people. So, in 33 percent of men and 45 percent of women in the age of 20-35 years, the body weight exceeds the norm.
... At present, in our country ... it seems paradoxical to talk about excessive nutrition as a factor contributing to the emergence and progression of alimentary obesity. However, in fact, the more the assortment of products available for purchase, the higher their cost, the more likely the violations of the diet, the physiologically inadequate distribution of the amount of energy that enters the body with food during the day. "
Almost half of the inhabitants of Western Europe after over forty years are overweight. According to statistics, 34 million US residents have a body weight above the norm. 12.4 million of them are obese ("Abroad", No. 29, 1987).
Thus, overweight, fatness, obesity is one of the most common metabolic diseases, affecting large segments of the population of economically developed countries. We draw the reader's attention to the simultaneous use, even at the academic level, of the strictly scientific term "excess body weight" and the term "excess body weight", more familiar to many readers, that has developed in the special literature. We will not deviate from this tradition and will use both terms.